Hyperpigmentation refers to the darkening or discoloration of patches of skin compared to the surrounding areas. It occurs when there is an overproduction or accumulation of melanin, the pigment responsible for giving color to the skin. Hyperpigmentation can be caused by various factors, including sun exposure, hormonal changes, inflammation, skin injuries, and certain medical conditions. Common types of hyperpigmentation include age spots, melasma, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. The appearance of hyperpigmentation can vary, ranging from small, dark spots to larger patches on the face, hands, or other parts of the body. Treatment options for hyperpigmentation include topical creams or serums containing ingredients like hydroquinone, retinoids, kojic acid, or vitamin C, which can help lighten the affected areas. Procedures such as chemical peels, microdermabrasion, or laser therapy may also be recommended to improve the appearance of hyperpigmentation. It is important to use sun protection and consult with a dermatologist to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment approach for individual cases of hyperpigmentation.
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