Melasma is a common skin condition characterized by dark, discolored patches or hyperpigmentation that typically appear on the face, particularly the cheeks, forehead, nose, and upper lip. It predominantly affects women and is associated with hormonal changes, such as pregnancy, hormonal contraception, or hormonal imbalances. Sun exposure is also a significant contributing factor to the development and exacerbation of melasma. The patches of melasma are usually symmetrical and can vary in size and intensity. While melasma does not cause any physical discomfort or health complications, it can be a cosmetic concern for many individuals. Treatment options for melasma include topical creams or serums containing ingredients like hydroquinone, retinoids, corticosteroids, or azelaic acid, which can help lighten the affected areas. Chemical peels, microdermabrasion, or laser therapy may also be used to enhance the results. Sun protection, such as wearing sunscreen and using protective clothing, is essential in managing melasma and preventing further pigmentation. It's important to consult with a dermatologist to determine the most suitable treatment approach for individual cases of melasma.
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